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The Spanish steel, a metal that is not extracted from the earth

Almost 80 % of the steel produced in Spain comes from recycled scrap material . Marina Segura Ramos. Madrid ( MarketWatch ) - . Nearly 80 % of the steel produced in Spain comes from recycled scrap materials , compared to 40-50 % of the European and global media, allowing the Spanish steel industry save energy , water and iron - the main component of steel - and avoid extraction of primary metals mines. The recycling of metals , according to the UN Programme for Environment ( UNEP) , is key to combat its scarcity and its proper management is "essential" to meet the demand of the world population (9,000 million in 2050). In contrast to recycling rates of steel, metals in the electronics is about 1% worldwide, according PNUMA.En Spain is still recycling steel "occurred a century and a half," CEO says UNESID ( Union Steel Association ) , Andrés Barceló, during a press visit to the ArcelorMittal plant in Zaragoza to observe the process of recycling scrap this mill , occupying 220,000 square meters in the outskirts of Zaragoza . Regarding the extraction of primary materials from the mines, this results in less air pollution, less waste and less use of water and energy , not to mention that the steel industry is an intensive energy industry . The sector accounts for 3.9% of the country's electricity , making it their main industrial consumer . As an example: to produce one tonne of steel requires about 550 kW , points responsible for environment UNESID , James Oliver . And , for each ton of steel is recycled , and half a ton of iron ore , 40 % water and 80 % energy saving . In 2011, the Spanish mills recycled 12.5 million tons of scrap , an increasingly deficient material because , among other reasons, companies junkyard ( away from the traditional figure of the junkyard ) are opting for export in the current crisis . The price per ton of scrap is also high - average around 260 euros , a high amount for the domestic market , which is not so in neighboring countries, with more sound that domestic economies. The steel present in everyday life in the form of cars, appliances , building structures etc., is an alloy of iron with a variable amount of carbon and other elements , metallic and non-metallic . It is also the second material in trade ( the first is oil ) and the second volume ( the first is cement ) says Barceló. In Spain there are 21 electric furnace steelmakers such as ArcelorMittal , which produce 75 % of the country's steel and consume 90 % of the industry uses scrap as raw material. In relation to traditional high oven, saves 95 % energy , adds CEO UNESID . The Zaragoza plant produces 3,000 tons of steel daily and annual consumption is equivalent to about 150,000 Spanish households , hence the reason that these industries manage their electricity demand based on the Spanish calendar Electrical . Basically , moving consumption peak hours to off-peak hours ; manage production processes and work shifts based on this schedule , and reduce power demand to prevent network overload and disruption of energy supply other consumers . At the same time , absorb some of the surplus renewable generation that occurs during periods of lower demand , nights and weekends . In the factory , you must first load of scrap from a warehouse outdoor baskets to about 90 tons of capacity that are downloaded on the electric arc furnace , and the next step is to merge to 1600 degrees. Then, the steel because liquid is led to a refining furnace in which the alloy is homogenized and is given the desired function of the qualities demanded by customers chemical composition. Then goes to a machine - wash continuously where it solidifies and semifinished called billet is obtained . This is transferred to a reheat furnace and is ready to be laminated , here is deformed hot to the desired final shape. Finally the rods are cooled and cut .

Fuente: La vanguardia

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